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Government Exam Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2023

In this comprehensive article, candidates gearing up for various government examinations in 2023 can access the detailed and topic-wise government exam syllabus in PDF format. Aspiring individuals from all corners of India, who are preparing for competitive exams such as those conducted by Banks, Railways, SSC, IBPS, PSU’s, etc.

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GEOGRAPHY PAPER I

Candidate may choose any optional subject from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given below:

Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Anthropology, Botany, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Commerce and Accountancy, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Geography, Geology, History, Law, Management, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Medical Science, Philosophy, Physics, Political Science, and International Relations, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, Statistics, Zoology.

GEOGRAPHY

PAPER I

PRINCIPLES OF  GEOGRAPHY

Physical Geography :

1. GEOMORPHOLOGY : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion  surfaces;  Slope  development;  Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification  of  world  climate;  Hydrological  cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of  the  sea  and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental  degradation,  management  and  conservation;  Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography :

1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions;

Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth  and  distribution  of  world  population; Demographic   attributes;   Causes and  consequences   of  migration;   Concepts   of  over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and

quality of life; Population as social capital.

Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural  settlements;  Hierarchy  of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate  city  and  rank-size  rule;  Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human  geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

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