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Government Exam Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2023

In this comprehensive article, candidates gearing up for various government examinations in 2023 can access the detailed and topic-wise government exam syllabus in PDF format. Aspiring individuals from all corners of India, who are preparing for competitive exams such as those conducted by Banks, Railways, SSC, IBPS, PSU’s, etc.

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Botany Paper-I

Candidate may choose any optional subject from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given below:

Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Anthropology, Botany, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Commerce and Accountancy, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Geography, Geology, History, Law, Management, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Medical Science, Philosophy, Physics, Political Science, and International Relations, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, Statistics, Zoology.

BOTANY

PAPER-I

1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:

  • Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.
  • Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

1. Cryptogams:

  • Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary iewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

2. Phanerogams:

  • Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.
  • Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.
  • Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.
  • Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.
  • Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.
  • Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination,  fertilization;  Endosperm—its development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

3. Plant Resource Development:

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

4. Morphogenesis:

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

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