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Government Exam Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2023

In this comprehensive article, candidates gearing up for various government examinations in 2023 can access the detailed and topic-wise government exam syllabus in PDF format. Aspiring individuals from all corners of India, who are preparing for competitive exams such as those conducted by Banks, Railways, SSC, IBPS, PSU’s, etc.

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Candidate may choose any optional subject from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given below:

Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Anthropology, Botany, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Commerce and Accountancy, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Geography, Geology, History, Law, Management, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Medical Science, Philosophy, Physics, Political Science, and International Relations, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, Statistics, Zoology.



1. Delocalised covalent bonding:

Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.

2. (i) Reaction mechanisms: General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanisms or organic reactions: isotopies, mathod cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.

(ii) Reactive intermediates: Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carboniumions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.

(iii) Substitution reactions: SN 1, SN 2, and SN i, mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds—pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.

(iv) Elimination reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions— Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination—acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.

(v) Addition reactions: Electrophilic addition to C=C and CC; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C N, conjugated  olefins  and carbonyls.

(vi) Reactions and Rearrangements: (a) Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer- Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner—Meerwein rearrangements.

(b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

3. Pericyclic reactions: Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5], FMO approach.

4. (i) Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymerspolyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.

(ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.

5. Synthetic Uses of Reagents:

OsO4, HlO4, CrO3, Pb (OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAIH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi, MCPBA.

6. Photochemistry: Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.

7. Spectroscopy:

Principle and applications in structure elucidation:

(i) Rotational—Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.

(ii) Vibrational—Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.

(iii) Electronic—Singlet and   triplet   states.   n   and      transitions;  application   to

conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls Woodward-Fieser rules; Charge transfer spectra.

(iv) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.

(v) Mass Spectrometry :—Parent peak, base peak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement

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